each 后面永遠接單數可數名詞,那麼它會影響到主謂一致嗎

英語中有很多的不定代詞,有的指代的是復數,如 both,few 或 others 等,有的指代的是單數,如 something,either 或 another 等,其中 each 也是指代單數的,因此它及對應的短語作主語時,謂語動詞用單數,然而在有些句子中,each 的存在可能會影響到主謂一致的判斷。

Each 可以作限定詞或代詞,作限定詞時,后面接單數名詞;按照通用的語法規則,它及對應的短語作主語時,謂語動詞用單數,例如:

Each employee has been awarded the prize for his or her performances.

每位員工都因其表現而獲獎。

因為 each 指代的是單數名詞,所以當它被其他代詞「二次」指代時,也用單數代詞,如上句的 his 或 her,然而用復數的 their 或 them 來指代 each 的情形也越來越多,目的可能是為了簡化復雜的 his or her 或 him or her 之類的表達方式,如上句改為:

Each employee has been awarded the prize for their performances.

我們國際象棋俱樂部的每個成員都有自己的特殊愛好。

Each member of our chess club has his or her own special interests.

Each member of our chess club has their own special interests.

但是無論是用單數的還是復數的單詞,each 及對應的短語作主語時,謂語動詞公認用單數,至于用什麼代詞指代 each,要根據實際情況來,在保證語法準確的情況下可以優先使用單數代詞,當然使用復數的代詞也漸漸流行起來,這個就像用指代有生命的 whose,它現在也越來越多的被用來指代非生命的物體了,例如:

This is the city whose inhabitants were abducted by aliens.

這就是居民被外星人綁架的城市。

那麼當 each 直接跟在復數名詞之后作主語時,謂語動詞是否還是單數呢?如果是對于指代復數的不定代詞如 both 等而言,它置于復數名詞后面作主語時,謂語動詞還是用復數,這是毫無爭議的,例如:

They both realize there is a promotion for both of them.

他們都意識到他們倆都有晉升機會。

首先需要肯定的是 each 要跟在復數名詞后面,才會有主謂一致的問題,而 each 跟在單數名詞后面作主語是錯誤的語法,如 I each,it each 等是錯誤的,因為 each 用于指兩個或兩個以上的人或事物中的每一個。

當 each 跟在復數名詞后面作主語時,謂語動詞還是用復數,而跟 each 沒關系,這是主謂一致的一個常考點,例如:

We each try to persuade him to quit smoking.

我們每個人都試圖說服他戒煙。

The coach and the quarterback each want to win the championship.

教練和四分衛都想贏得冠軍。

這個就好比作連詞的 as well as 和 in addition to 等對主謂一致的影響原理一樣,在實際使用中 as well as 不影響主謂一致,實際謂語跟著主語變化而變化,例如:

杰克和他的朋友們被邀請參加聚會。

正確:Jack as well as his friends was invited to the party.

錯誤:Jack as well as his friends were invited to the party.

為了更好的區分 as well as 等附加的信息,我們可以在使用時用逗號隔開,這樣就清晰明了了,例如:

Jack, as well as his friends, was invited to the party.

不定代詞雖然「不定」,還是一些語法規則還是比較「固定」的;萬變不離其宗,所有的不定代詞考的不是指代的對象,就是主謂一致,因為可以分類歸納。


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